Alexander the Great arrived to Egypt in the late autumn of 332 BC. He founded Alexandria in 331 BC as a gateway to his motherland, Greece. Alexandria became a major center for trading. Its Library became a cultural center that made an important contribution to civilization.
The Ptolemies ruled Egypt until 30 BC and were succeeded by the Romans until 642 AD when the Arabs arrived. It was during the Roman period when Christianity came to Egypt. It was in Alexandria where the great Catechtical School, which produced the early fathers of the Church, emerged.
In 642 AD, Egypt witnessed the beginning of its Arab and Islamic epoch. Successive Arab rulers governed Egypt as part of the Islamic empire, and at various junctures established it as the center of power of the empire.
The Arabs were followed by the Mamlukes, who were magnificent warriors and who ruled Egypt from 1250-1517 AD when their reign ended with the Ottoman conquest of Egypt under Sultan Selim.